Irony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A stop sign ironically defaced with a plea not to deface stop signs. Irony (from Ancient Greek . Irony may be divided into categories such as verbal, dramatic, and situational. Verbal, dramatic, and situational irony are often used for emphasis in the assertion of a truth.
The ironic form of simile, used in sarcasm, and some forms of litotes can emphasize one's meaning by the deliberate use of language which states the opposite of the truth, denies the contrary of the truth, or drastically and obviously understates a factual connection. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage says: Irony is a form of utterance that postulates a double audience, consisting of one party that hearing shall hear & shall not understand, & another party that, when more is meant than meets the ear, is aware both of that more & of the outsiders' incomprehension. Thus the majority of American Heritage Dictionary's usage panel found it unacceptable to use the word ironic to describe mere unfortunate coincidences or surprising disappointments that . The Socratic irony of the Platonic dialogues derives from this comic origin. It derives from the Latin ironia and ultimately from the Greek . It is most often used when the author causes a character to speak or act erroneously, out of ignorance of some portion of the truth of which the audience is aware.
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In tragic irony, the audience knows the character is making a mistake, even as the character is making it. Verbal irony. According to A glossary of literary terms by Abrams and Hartman,Verbal irony is a statement in which the meaning that a speaker employs is sharply different from the meaning that is ostensibly expressed.
The ironic statement usually involves the explicit expression of one attitude or evaluation, but with indications in the overall speech- situation that the speaker intends a very different, and often opposite, attitude or evaluation. For instance, if a man exclaims, . But if the same speaker said the same words and intended to communicate that he was upset by claiming he was not, the utterance would be verbal irony. This distinction illustrates an important aspect of verbal irony. There are, however, examples of verbal irony that do not rely on saying the opposite of what one means, and there are cases where all the traditional criteria of irony exist and the utterance is not ironic.
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In a clear example from literature, in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Mark Antony's speech after the assassination of Caesar appears to praise the assassins, particularly Brutus (. The literal truth of what's written clashes with the perceived truth of what's meant to revealing effect, which is irony in a nutshell.
For instance, the following explicit similes begin with the deceptive formation of a statement that means A but that eventually conveys the meaning not A: The irony is recognizable in each case only by using knowledge of the source concepts (e. Verbal irony and sarcasm.
A fair amount of confusion has surrounded the issue of the relationship between verbal irony and sarcasm. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern English Usage states: Sarcasm does not necessarily involve irony and irony has often no touch of sarcasm.
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This suggests that the two concepts are linked but may be considered separately. The OED entry for sarcasm does not mention irony, but the irony entry reads: A figure of speech in which the intended meaning is the opposite of that expressed by the words used; usually taking the form of sarcasm or ridicule in which laudatory expressions are used to imply condemnation or contempt. The Encyclop. 2 a : a mode of satirical wit depending for its effect on bitter, caustic, and often ironic language that is usually directed against an individual. Partridge in Usage and Abusage would separate the two forms of speech completely: Irony must not be confused with sarcasm, which is direct: sarcasm means precisely what it says, but in a sharp, caustic, .. For sarcasm, he cites Winston Churchill, who is supposed to have said, when told by Bessie Braddock that he was drunk, . They found that ridicule is an important aspect of sarcasm, but not of verbal irony in general. By this account, sarcasm is a particular kind of personal criticism levelled against a person or group of persons that incorporates verbal irony.
For example, a woman reports to her friend that rather than going to a medical doctor to treat her cancer, she has decided to see a spiritual healer instead. In response her friend says sarcastically, . Some psycholinguistic theorists (e. download Lego Star Wars 3 Torrent - Safford.
Gibbs, 2. 00. 0) suggest that sarcasm (. The differences between these rhetorical devices (tropes) can be quite subtle and relate to typical emotional reactions of listeners, and the rhetorical goals of the speakers. Regardless of the various ways theorists categorize figurative language types, people in conversation who are attempting to interpret speaker intentions and discourse goals do not generally identify, by name, the kinds of tropes used (Leggitt & Gibbs, 2. Dramatic irony. This type of irony is the device of giving the spectator an item of information that at least one of the characters in the narrative is unaware of (at least consciously), thus placing the spectator a step ahead of at least one of the characters. It was originally pioneered by Connop Thirlwall in his 1.
On the Irony of Sophocles. In summary, it means that the reader/watcher/listener knows something that one or more of the characters in the piece is not aware of. For example: In City Lights the audience knows that Charlie Chaplin's character is not a millionaire, but the blind flower girl (Virginia Cherrill) believes him to be rich. The audience also knows that Kaplan is a fictitious agent invented by the CIA; Roger (initially) and Vandamm (throughout) do not. The audience also knows that Iago is scheming to bring about Othello's downfall, a fact hidden from Othello, Desdemona, Cassio and Roderigo. Also, in the crypt, most of the other characters in the cast think Juliet is dead, but the audience knows she only took a sleeping potion.
Romeo is also under the same misapprehension when he kills himself. In tragic irony, the words and actions of the characters contradict the real situation, which the spectators fully realize. The Oxford English Dictionary defines this as: the incongruity created when the (tragic) significance of a character's speech or actions is revealed to the audience but unknown to the character concerned, the literary device so used, orig.
Sophocles' Oedipus the King provides a classic example of tragic irony at its fullest. Colebrook writes: Tragic irony is exemplified in ancient drama .. The audience watched a drama unfold, already knowing its destined outcome. In Sophocles' Oedipus the King, for example, 'we' (the audience) can see what Oedipus is blind to. The man he murders is his father, but he does not know it. For example, in the William Shakespeare play Romeo and Juliet, when Romeo finds Juliet in a drugged deathlike sleep, he assumes her to be dead and kills himself. Upon awakening to find her dead lover beside her, Juliet stabs herself with a dagger thus killing herself.
Situational irony. This is a relatively modern use of the term, and describes a sharp discrepancy between the expected result and actual results in a certain situation. Lars Ellestr. Thus, a vehicle made to protect the President from gunfire instead directed gunfire to the president. Dorothy travels to a wizard and fulfills his challenging demands in order to go home, before discovering she'd had the ability to go back home all along.
The Scarecrow longs for intelligence, only to discover he is already a genius, and the Tin Woodsman longs to be capable of love, only to discover he already has a heart. The Lion, who at first appears to be a whimpering coward, turns out to be bold and fearless. The people in Emerald City believed the Wizard to be a powerful deity, only to discover that he is a bumbling, eccentric old man with no special powers at all. The wife cuts off her treasured hair to sell it to a wig- maker for money to buy her husband a chain for his heirloom pocket watch. She's shocked when she learns he had pawned his watch to buy her a set of combs for her long, beautiful, prized hair. To prevent this, he imprisons both Devaki and her husband Vasudeva, allowing them to live only if they hand over their children as soon as they are born. He murders nearly all of them, one by one, but the seventh and eighth children, Balarama and Krishna, are saved and raised by a royal couple, Nanda and Yashoda.
After the boys grow up, Krishna eventually kills Kamsa as the prophecy foretold. Kamsa's attempt to prevent the prophecy led to it becoming a reality.
Cronus prevents his wife from raising any children, but the one who ends up defeating him is Zeus, the later King of the Gods. Closely connected with situational irony, it arises from sharp contrasts between reality and human ideals, or between human intentions and actual results. The resulting situation is poignantly contrary to what was expected or intended.
According to Sudhir Dixit, . There is a strong feeling of a hostile deus ex machina in Hardy's novels. For example, during the 1. The New York Times repeatedly scorned crossword puzzles. In 1. 92. 4, it lamented .
The craze evidently is dying out fast. Historical irony is therefore a subset of cosmic irony, but one in which the element of time is bound to play a role. Another example could be that of the Vietnam War, where in the 1. U. S. However, it is an often ignored fact that, in 1. U. S. Ideologues within the Bush administration persuaded themselves that American power, adroitly employed, could transform that region ..
The results speak for themselves. However, this state of affairs does not occur by human design.